- Earth System Science (ESS)
- Earth's Matter
- Energy and the Earth System
- Earth's Biosphere
- Earth's Climate
- Home and National Security
- Fresh Water and Food Security
- Ecosystems and Biodiversity Impacts
- Public Health
- Economic Impacts
Science of Learning
- Processes of Teaching & Learning
- STEM Learning Environments
- Learning Objectives
- Communities and Cultures
Reflection Energy Outflow
Snow, ice and clouds typically reflect 70% to 90% of the sunlight that shines on them. In contrast, land and ocean typically reflect only 10% to 40% of the incoming solar energy, and absorb the rest. Overall 30% of the incoming solar energy is immediately reflected back to outer space and does not heat the planet.
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