Key Idea Crop and livestock production will be increasingly challenged:
Many crops show positive responses to elevated carbon dioxide and low levels of warming, but higher levels of warming often negatively affect growth and yields.
Extreme events such as heavy downpours and droughts are likely to reduce crop yields because excesses or deficits of water have negative impacts on plant growth.
Weeds, diseases, and insect pests benefit from warming, and weeds also benefit from a higher carbon dioxide concentration, increasing stress on crop plants and requiring more attention to pest and weed control.
Forage quality in pastures and rangelands generally declines with increasing carbon dioxide concentrations because of the effects on plant nitrogen and protein content, reducing the land's ability to supply adequate livestock feed.
Increased heat, disease, and weather extremes are likely to reduce livestock productivity.

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