Key Idea Widespread climate-related impacts are occurring now and are expected to increase. With respect to ecosystems:
Ecosystem processes, such as those that control growth and decomposition, have been affected by climate change.
Large-scale shifts have occurred in the ranges of species and the timing of the seasons and of animal migrations, and are very likely to continue.
Fire, insects, pests, disease pathogens, and invasive weed species have increased, and these trends are likely to continue.
Deserts and drylands are likely to become hotter and drier, feeding a self-reinforcing cycle of invasive plants, fire, and erosion.
Coastal and near-shore ecosystems are already under multiple stresses. Climate change and ocean acidification will exacerbate these stresses.

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